Physiological Role of F
Estimated safe and adequate daily dietary intake (ESADDI)
Sources of F
Deficiency of F
Toxicity of F

I.  Physiological Role of F (See J Nutr. 26:2355, 1996)

  1. No one has yet produced an environment so low in F that animal survival has been vitally threatened
  2. Trace quantities appear to be beneficial
    1. Development of caries resistance
    2. Inhibition of excessive demineralization of bone in the aged
  3. F may have a role interrelated with absorption or utilization of some other nutrient
  4. Apparent beneficial responses to F in some studies may have been pharmacological effects correcting some dietary imbalance or deficiency

II.  Metabolism

  1. Absorption is high and largely passive
  2. Homeostatic regulation
    1. Excretion in urine
    2. Deposition in bone
  3. Over 90% of F in the body is in bones and teeth
    1. F is incorporated into hydroxyapatite to form fluorapatite
    2. F cannot be removed without resorption of the apatite unit
  4. Most soft tissues do not accumulate much F, even during high intakes

III.  Estimated safe and adequate daily dietary intake (ESADDI)

  1. Fluoride was given as ESADDI because of its beneficial effects in reducing dental cavities rather than because of any clear cut evidence of essentiality
  2. ESADDI in mg/day:
    1. Infants................0.01-1.0
    2. Children..............0.5-2.5
    3. Adolescents.......1.5-2.5
    4. Adults.................1.5-4.0

IV.  Sources of F

  1. Seafoods (5-10 ug/g)
  2. Tea (100 ug/g)
  3. Cereal and other grains (1-3 ug/g)
  4. Fluoridated drinking water
  5. Rock phosphate

V.  Deficiency of F has not been clearly demonstrated

VI.  Toxicity of F

  1. Toxicity can occur as a result of:
    1. Drinking water naturally high in F
    2. Deposition of industrial fumes or dusts on pasture for grazing livestock
    3. Use of high F mineral supplements
    4. Animal byproducts containing bone
  2. Symptoms of F toxicity
    1. Chronic toxicity
      1. Anorexia
      2. Unthriftiness
      3. Dry hair and thick, nonpliable skin - mottled teeth, excessive tooth wear -skeletal damage, lameness
    2. Acute toxicity (relatively rare)
      1. Restlessness, stiffness, anorexia, weakness, severe depression
      2. Excessive salivation, nausea, vomiting, urinary and fecal incontinence, necrosis of gastrointestinal mucosa
      3. Clonic convulsions, cardiac failure

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